Final Draft: The Pill’s Impact On Young Women and Men in the Cold War Era

Final Draft

(please select pdf. then click enable editing at the top of Microsoft Word)

It was a pleasure to meet all of you. Hope we all enjoyed the class and good luck with the rest of your studies.

-John Ryan Fry

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Final Draft (not done)

Ever since the founding of America, freedom has been the core desired goal of its inhabitants. As the years passed, the definition of freedom has evolved and been interpreted differently for different groups. During the Cold War era, accomplishments for sexual freedom spread across the nation, the introduction of the oral contraceptive made it finally possible for women to be equally free to men in regards to sex. Research and developments of the oral contraceptive during the cold war era removed the fear of unwanted pregnancy leaving women finally as sexually free as men. For centuries, women had the burden and fear of pregnancy with every sexual encounter. They could never truly enjoy sex with their partner without the possibility of becoming pregnant in the back of their minds. With the birth of children, women would have to dedicate their lived to caring and raising them. This left no possibility of a higher education or sustainable career. For many employers, women were looked at as though they had a cripple. If and when the women became pregnant that would mean less efficiency in the work place and missed time from their work. As a result women could never hold a job that required full dedication. In addition, women were having more children than the family could financially afford. This left not only the man and woman in a state of poverty, but the children in poor living conditions with no way of recovering. The oral contraceptive more commonly known as, “The Pill”, gave women the ability to control their pregnancies and the freedom to control their lives how they would desire. Women were finally able to spread out their children or put their families on hold in order to receive an education, and find a well-paid career without employers worrying about valuable missed time. Finally, birth could be managed and couples could choose or not choose how many children they could afford or want.
The doctor who accompanied the efforts to develop the pill was Dr. Joh Rock. Although a devout Catholic, Rock believed an oral contraceptive saved lives as oppose to the church’s belief that it was a sin in regards to the natural order of creation. During his residency in obstetrics, Rock was assigned to poor immigrant housing projects to assist in delivering infants. He witnessed firsthand the hardships people were living due to bearing more children than the families could financially afford. After Rock established himself as a doctor, he would be visited by women who attempted home abortions and were in danger of losing their lives. “With John Rock seeing firsthand how these women were putting themselves at risk he could not find himself to believe birth control was morally wrong if it could easily prevent women from losing their own lives”, said Dr. Marsh, author of The Fertility Doctor: John Rock and the Reproductive Revolution. I had the pleasure of sitting down with her to discuss Dr. Rock and the influence the pill has on life in the Cold War era. When asked, “What was the most influential development for sexual health during the Cold War Era”, Dr. Marsh said, “In regards to sexual health and medicine, the pill remains one of the most significant inventions of the twentieth century”.
As a result of the invention of the oral contraceptive, couples started their families later on in life as oppose to straight out of high school. Before the pill, families were started with the women being just on the cusp of adulthood and lacking experience and knowledge of raising children. The introduction of the oral contraceptive allowed women and men to mature into adults thus leaving child raising out of the hands of children. The pill also had play in women’s financial potent. The pill meant women could postpone childbearing while they started a career or finish college. Dr. Marsh pointed out in our interview that, “couples could finally space out their kids so they could live within their means without scraping from their savings”. In a recent study from the University of Maryland and the University of California at Los Angeles researchers found that women who decided to put off childbirth, roughly until they were about 26 years old, and focus on their career instead were financially more secure by they reached 50. Shortly after the pill’s release to Americans, it became the most popular form of birth control. In an advice column in The Chicago Defender in 1966, a women was asking for advice on avoiding having more pregnancies and what the most effective way to avoid pregnancies was. The columnist answered that the most effective form was an oral contraceptive and can be provided at not only their family doctor but at any Planned Parenthood Centers. Many articles in news columns promoted the idea of the oral contraceptive for young women to avoid unwanted pregnancies. According to The Chicago Defender over 6 million women in America were on the pill by 1967. As a result Young women were able to get an education and work experience without fear of them having to take time away from establishing themselves at a job to raise children.
http://health.usnews.com/health-news/womens-health/articles/2010/05/07/birth-control-pill-turns-50-7-ways-it-changed-livesp
Along with the burden of childbirth, women have also struggled with menstrual problems even without a pregnancy. Many women have complained about severe cramps, and migraines which may affect work performance and their overall comfort of living. The hormonal influence in the pill causes less hormones to be released during the ovulation cycle of women. These hormones cause the problems and even dilutes the bleeding during the woman’s period.

http://health.usnews.com/health-news/womens-health/articles/2010/05/07/birth-control-pill-turns-50-7-ways-it-changed-livesp
http://www.plannedparhenthood.org/health-info/birth-control/birth-control-pill

With these side benefits we cannot forget the pill’s main purpose and how it revolutionized women’s views about sex. A study conducted at Guttmacher institute, the pill has accounted for a lower rate in unplanned pregnancies. Although previous contraceptives have been around since the cradle of civilization, hormonal contraceptive has been deemed 99 percent effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies (when used correctly). As a result, the percentage of abortions have dramatically decreased. Woman no longer had to face moral values of society when it comes to the idea of abortions.
We can also give tribute to the pill for allowing many of the revolutions in the 60s to take place. “Finally, women were able to experience a sexual freedom the world had never seen before”, said Dr. Marsh in our interview. Young women could dedicate their time and efforts toward their own social issues. Without the pill the women’s liberation movement may have never taken place. Earlier explained was the pill giving women more freedom to enter the work place more seriously. As a result, young women had difficulties letting their voices be heard in a male dominated work force. Women as well desired a say in their medical issues. Before the Women’s Liberation Movement, doctors had all the say in what was best for the patient. The Women’s Liberation Movement helped women’s basic rights be granted and their voices be heard not only in the work place but in government, and doctor’s offices.

With these fears now conquered women are finally as free, sexually, as men. The sexual revolution of the 1960s was essentially organized thanks to the Pill. With the idea of sex no longer an unspoken truth, men and women were at long last able to discuss it in conversation without a taboo. Sex and fertility education began with minimal scrutiny in schools and doctor’s offices. Prior to the genesis of the oral contraceptive, the norm for medical visits had the doctors with free range over their patience without the patience choice of diagnosis and prescription. With the political confrontations of the 1960s, patience became the voice when a medical issue was revealed.
(“The pill” documentary; http://health.usnews.com/health-news/womens-health/articles/2010/05/07/birth-control-pill-turns-50-7-ways-it-changed-livesp ; Dr. Marsh Interview)

For young adults in America during the Cold War era one of the most influential the developments was the hormonal oral contraceptive. Not only did it act as a birth control but it released young women into society allowing them to receive fairer treatment in education and vocation. As a side effect it allowed women to grow a voice in affairs regarding their family as well as their natural rights as Americans. Women now had a form of birth control completely controlled by them without any need of their partner’s consent. Protest movements such as the Women’s Liberation Movement may have never had a stronghold in politics if women never received this freedom. Sex education as well as women’s medicine had powerful roots thanks to the pill. Ever since the founding of America, freedom has been the core desired goal of its inhabitants. American women, especially young women, finally were giving sexual freedom the like that the world never knew. The contraceptive has been so iconic it has carried on the still be the most popular form of birth control in the twenty first century.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-15984258

http://foundsf.org/index.php?title=Women%27s_Liberation_Origins_and_Development_of_the_Movement

Over 6-Million Women Have Faith In The Pill

Title
Over 6-Million Women Have Faith In The Pill
Pages
10
Number of pages
1
Publication year
1967
Publication date
Sep 2, 1967
Year
1967
Publisher
Real Times, Inc.
Place of publication
Chicago, Ill.
Country of publication
United States
Source type
Historical Newspapers
Language of publication
English
Document type
letter_to_editor
ProQuest document ID
493219071
Copyright
Copyright Real Times, Inc. Sep 2, 1967
Last updated
2012-03-02
Database
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Chicago Defender (1910-1975)

Keep Your Family The Right Size

Title
Keep Your Family The Right Size
Pages
11
Number of pages
1
Publication year
1966
Publication date
Jul 16, 1966
Year
1966
Publisher
Real Times, Inc.
Place of publication
Chicago, Ill.
Country of publication
United States
Source type
Historical Newspapers
Language of publication
English
Document type
article
ProQuest document ID
493248696
Copyright
Copyright Real Times, Inc. Jul 16, 1966
Last updated
2012-03-06
Database
ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Chicago Defender (1910-1975)
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Second Draft

Ever since the founding of America, freedom has been the core desired goal of its inhabitants. As the years passed, the definition of freedom has evolved and been interpreted differently for different groups. During the Cold War era, accomplishments for sexual freedom spread across the nation, the introduction of the oral contraceptive made it finally possible for women to be equally free to men in regards to sex. Research and developments of the oral contraceptive during the cold war era removed the fear of man unwanted pregnancy leaving women finally as sexually free as men. For centuries, women had the burden and fear of pregnancy with every sexual encounter. They could never truly enjoy sex with their partner without the possibility of becoming pregnant in the back of their minds. With the birth of children, women would have dedicate their lived to caring and raising them. This left no possibility of a higher education or sustainable career. For many employers, women were looked at as though they had a cripple. If and when the women became pregnant that would mean less efficiency in the work place and missed time from their work. As a result women could never hold a job that required full dedication. In addition, women were having more children than the family could financially afford. This left not only the man and woman in a state of poverty, but the children in poor living conditions with no way of recovering. The oral contraceptive known as, “The Pill”, gave women the ability to control their pregnancies and the freedom to control their lives how they would desire. Women were finally able to spread out their children or put their families on hold in order to receive an education, and find a well-paid career without employers worrying about valuable missed time. Finally, birth could be managed and couples could choose or not choose how many children they could afford or want.
The doctor who accompanied the efforts to develop the pill was Dr. Joh Rock. Although a devout Catholic, Rock believed an oral contraceptive saved lives as oppose to the church’s belief that it was a sin in regards to the natural order of creation. During his residency in obstetrics, Rock was assigned to poor immigrant housing projects to assist in delivering infants . He witnessed firsthand the hardships people were living due to bearing more children than the families could financially afford. After Rock established himself as a doctor, he would be visited by women who attempted home abortions and were in danger of losing their lives. “With John Rock seeing firsthand how these women were putting themselves at risk he could not find himself to believe birth control was morally wrong if it could easily prevent women from losing their own lives”, said Dr. Marsh, author of The Fertility Doctor: John Rock and the Reproductive Revolution. I had the pleasure of sitting down with her to discuss Dr. Rock and the influence the pill has on life in the Cold War era.
As a result of the invention of the oral contraceptive, couples started their families later on in life as oppose to straight out of high school. Before the pill, families were started with the women being just on the cusp of adulthood and lacking experience and knowledge of raising children. The introduction of the oral contraceptive allowed women and men to mature into adults thus leaving child raising out of the hands of children. The pill also had play in women’s financial potent. The pill meant women could postpone childbearing while they started a career or finish college. Dr. Marsh pointed out in our interview that, “couples could finally space out their kids so they could live within their means without scraping from their savings”. In a recent study from the University of Maryland and the University of California at Los Angeles researchers found that women who decided to put off childbirth, roughly until they were about 26 years old, and focus on their career instead were financially more secure by they reached 50. They were able to get an education and work experience without fear of them having to take time away from establishing themselves at a job to raise children.
http://health.usnews.com/health-news/womens-health/articles/2010/05/07/birth-control-pill-turns-50-7-ways-it-changed-livesp
Along with the burden of childbirth, women have also struggled with menstrual problems even without a pregnancy. Many women have complained about severe cramps, and migraines which may affect work performance and their overall comfort of living. The hormonal influence in the pill causes less hormones to be released during the ovulation cycle of women. These hormones cause the problems and even dilutes the bleeding during the woman’s period.
http://health.usnews.com/health-news/womens-health/articles/2010/05/07/birth-control-pill-turns-50-7-ways-it-changed-livesp
http://www.plannedparhenthood.org/health-info/birth-control/birth-control-pill

With these side benefits we cannot forget the pill’s main purpose and how it revolutionized women’s views about sex. A study conducted at Guttmacher institute, the pill has accounted for a lower rate in unplanned pregnancies. Although previous contraceptives have been around since the cradle of civilization, hormonal contraceptive has been deemed 99 percent effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies (when used correctly). As a result, there has been the percentage of abortions has been dramatically lowered. Woman no longer have to face moral values of society when it comes to the idea of abortions. “We can also give tribute to the pill for allowing many of the revolutions in the 60s to take place,” says Dr. Marsh. Without the pill the women’s liberation movement may have never taken place. Earlier explained was the pill giving women more freedom to enter the work place more seriously. This resulted in difficulties women were facing with having a voice. The Women’s Liberation Movement helped women’s basic rights be granted and their voices ben heard not only in the work place but in government as well.
With these fears now conquered women are finally as free, sexually, as men. The sexual revolution of the 1960s was essentially organized thanks to the Pill. With the idea of sex no longer an unspoken truth, men and women were at long last able to discuss it in conversation without a taboo. Sex and fertility education began with minimal scrutiny in schools and doctor’s offices. Prior to the birth of the oral contraceptive, the norm form for medical visits had the doctors with free range over their patience without the patience choice of diagnosis and prescription. With the political confrontations of the 1960s, patience became the voice when a medical issue was revealed.
(“the pill” documentary; http://health.usnews.com/health-news/womens-health/articles/2010/05/07/birth-control-pill-turns-50-7-ways-it-changed-livesp ; Dr. Marsh Interview)

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First Draft: Introduction of “The Pill”

I: Overall Research Question

How did the development of the oral contraceptive effect the youth during the Cold War Era?

II: Thesis

Research and developments of the Oral Contraceptive during the Cold War helped achieve Birth and sexual control for youth in America.

III: Evidence

I planned to use my interview with Dr. Marsh along with the PBS documentary, American Experience: The Pill, in which Dr. Marsh appears as evidence to support my evidence. In addition I plan to use Prescribing the Pill: Politics, Culture, and the Sexual Revolution, in order to discuss the conflict that unfolded between the government and the Citizens, as well as the doctors and their patience.

Topics:

  • The main goal of the pill
  • Hormonal balance and medical issues that came about with oral contraceptives
  • Societal rearrangement
  • Women in the work force
  • The fall in abortion rate

Introduction

Ever since the founding of America, freedom has been the core desired goal of its inhabitants. As the years passed, the definition of freedom has evolved and been interpreted differently for different groups. During the Cold War era, accomplishments for sexual freedom spread across the nation, the introduction of the oral contraceptive made it finally possible for women to be equally free to men in regards to sex. For centuries, women had the burden and fear of pregnancy with every sexual encounter. They could never truly enjoy sex with their partner without the possibility of becoming pregnant in the back of their minds. With the birth of children, women would have dedicate their lived to caring and raising them. This left no possibility of a higher education or sustainable career. For many employers, women were looked at as though they had a cripple. If and when the women became pregnant that would mean less efficiency in the work place and missed time from their work. As a result women could never hold a job that required full dedication. In addition, women were having more children than the family could financially afford. This left not only the man and woman in a state of poverty, but the children in poor living conditions with no way of recovering. The oral contraceptive known as, “The Pill”, gave women the ability to control their pregnancies and the freedom to control their lives how they would desire. Women were finally able to spread out their children or put their families on hold in order to receive an education, and find a well paid career without employers worrying about valuable missed time. Finally, birth could be managed and couples could choose or not choose how many children they could afford.

  • The Body
  • -couples started their families later on in life as oppose to straight out of high school. Before the pill, families were started with the women being just on the cusp of adulthood and lacking experience and knowledge of raising children. The introduction of the oral contraceptive allowed women and men to mature into adults thus leaving child raising out of the hands of children.
  • (Dr. Marsh interview
  • -the pill also had play in women’s financial potential. In a recent study from the University of Maryland and the University of California at Los Angeles researchers found that women who decided to put off childbirth, roughly until they were about 26 years old, and focus on their career instead were financially more secure by they reached 50. They were able to get an education and work experience without fear of them having to take time away from establishing themselves at a job to raise children.
  • -Along with the burden of childbirth, women have also struggled with menstrual problems even without a pregnancy. Many women have complained about severe cramps, and migraines which may affect work performance or even just being comfortable. The pill triggers less hormones to be released during the ovulation cycle. These hormones cause the problems and even dilutes the bleeding during the woman’s period.
  • http://health.usnews.com/health-news/womens-health/articles/2010/05/07/birth-control-pill-turns-50-7-ways-it-changed-livesp
  • -With these side benefits we cannot forget the pill’s main purpose and how it revolutionized women’s views about sex. Based on a recent study from Guttmacher institute, the pill has accounted for a lower rate in unplanned pregnancies. Although previous contraceptives have been around since the cradle of civilization, hormonal contraceptive has been deemed 99 percent effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies (when used correctly). As a result, there has been the percentage of abortions has been dramatically lowered. Woman no longer have to face moral values of society when it comes to the idea of abortions.
  •      With these fears now conquered women are finally as free, sexually, as men. The sexual revolution of the 1960s was essentially organized thanks to the Pill. With the idea of sex no longer an unspoken truth, men and women were at long last able to discuss it in conversation without a taboo. Sex and fertility education began with minimal scrutiny in schools and doctor’s offices. Prior to the birth of the oral contraceptive, the norm form for medical visits had the doctors with free range over their patience without the patience choice of diagnosis and prescription. With the political confrontations of the 1960s, patience became the voice when a medical issue was revealed.
  • (“the pill” documentary; http://health.usnews.com/health-news/womens-health/articles/2010/05/07/birth-control-pill-turns-50-7-ways-it-changed-livesp ; Dr. Marsh Interview)

Conclusion:

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Oral History Assignment

Overall Research Question:
How did new research and developments in sexual medicine effect the youth during the Cold War Era?

-Margaret Marsh, being an expert in the History of Medicine, and the politics and policy-making that goes along with medical ethics, is more than credited to help me answer my question.

Margaret Marsh:

-Expertise: Women’s Health, Politics and Policy-making, History of Medicine, Medical Ethics

-Professor of History at Rutgers University

-Executive Dean of the faculty of Arts and sciences at Rutgers-Camden

-Her time consists of arts and sciences at the Camden campus and the Institute for health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research in New Brunswick.

-Ph.D. in U.S. History from Rutgers

-Before she came to Rutgers, Marsh was a professor of History at Temple University. There she established a Ph.D. program for Women’s History.

-She has had articles published in renowned journals such as, American Quarterly, the Journal of American History, and, Pennsylvania History.

-Author of four books: Anarchist Women (1981); Suburban Lives (1990); The Empty Cradle; Infertility in America from Colonial Times to the Present (1996); and The Fertility Doctor: John Rock and the Reproductive Revolution (2008)

-She received two multi- year research grants from the National Endowment for humanities for The Empty Cradle and The Fertility Doctor.

-Most recently, Marsh and her colleague, Dr. Wanda Ronner received an Investigator Award in health policy research from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

-She has served on non-profit boards and committees such as the Richard Stockton Foundation (as Vice –President) and the New Jersey Humanities Council.

http://mmarsh.rutgers.edu/about/
http://mmarsh.rutgers.edu/2014/04/25/margaret-marsh-and-wanda-ronner-receive-investigator-award-in-health-policy-research-from-the-robert-wood-johnson-foundation/
https://jhupbooks.press.jhu.edu/content/fertility-doctor
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844293/

-The Empty Cradle and the Fertility Doctor are two iconic books Marsh has written. They are a collection of popular magazines, journals, and newspaper clippings that she has found important in the history of fertility and sex medicine.
-Marsh and her colleague, Wanda Ronner also recently received an Investigator Award in Health Policy Research. This website describes Marsh’s views on the development of fertility research in the United States.
http://mmarsh.rutgers.edu/2014/04/25/margaret-marsh-and-wanda-ronner-receive-investigator-award-in-health-policy-research-from-the-robert-wood-johnson-foundation/

Dr. Marsh and I will be meeting This Monday at 12:30 am on Rutgers-Camden Campus. I will plan to use a recorder to keep or conversation as well as my own personal notes.

Questions:
1-You have your B.A. in 1967 at this very school and went on to receive your M.A. in 1969 and then you Ph.D. in 1974. What gave you an interest in the history of fertility and sexual health?

2-How long have you been conducting your research?

3-Your book The Empty Cradle, explores misconceptions about fertility based on medical and cultural beliefs. What would you say were the most iconic misconceptions you found in your research?

4-You and your co-writer, Wanda Ronner, chronicle John Rock in your book, The Fertility Doctor. He proved Human in vitro fertilization was indeed possible. Can you explain what an in vitro entails?

5-When John Rock announced his findings to the medical world, what was the majority’s opinion?

6-Then in the 1950s Rock joined forces with Gregory Pincus. Together they developed the Oral contraceptive in the 1960s. It can be assumed this was a very controversial development. What was the reaction to the introduction of “The Pill”?

7-What was your opinion of “The Pill”? (Along with your friends and family?)

8-The Pill provided many women a more affordable and safer way to avoid pregnancy. What was the rate of premarital pregnancies compared to before the pill was introduced?

9-There were countless discoveries and developments that have made sexual and fertility health much safer and more equipped for today’s lifestyles. What would you say are some of the most influential findings for young adults during the Cold War Era?

Part Two:

Dr. Marsh made the interview simpler than I imagined. Of the 10 questions I could have ask her, I only had to ask 4. With every question she answered, she answered the next one I was going to ask. I learned not only Dr. John Rock’s medical success but a little about his personal life and his devotion to the catholic church. Even to this day the catholic church believes any form of birth control to be a sin and originally, Dr. Rock believed this be true. However, during his residency before he could become a doctor Rock saw first hand in the fertility ward how the women would have more children than they could financially sustain. This left poor living environments for the children and their families resulting in an endless cycle of poverty. Rock then came to the realization that contraception could save children and their families the hardship by avoiding over bearing children and giving the families a fighting chance to survive in a comforting living environment.

With my finding by interviewing Dr. Marsh it came very easy for me to narrow my research down to just the development of the oral contraceptive. In addition, my concluding question for Dr. Marsh was, ” what would you say based on your experience is the most influential development for sex during the Cold War era that had the biggest impact on American Youth?” Dr. Marsh said, “without a doubt the pill had a lasting impact on not only the family but society.” Women now had the freedom to spread their children out in order to let their lives be played. Women could now receive an education, find a lasting career without the burden of multiple kids to raze. John Rock also publicized mire care could be afforded on the children which lead to better living conditions for children. So not only was the pill influential to young women and men alike but for the greater good of the children.

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magazine proposal

Through out the Cold War era, music was an important tool to express, views on the war, civil, rights and the government body. Concerts were held which brought young people together in demonstration. The ability for music to bring people together has always been a strong power that can reform society and its  politics.

Bibliography :

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